Vegetation Classification System for South Florida National Parks
from    Welch, R. and M. Madden. 1999. Vegetation Map and Digital Database of South Florida's National Park Service Lands, final report to the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cooperative Agreement Number 5280-4-9006, Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science, University of Georgia, Athens, 44 pp.

F FOREST - High-density stands of trees with heights over 5 metres.
        FM Mangrove Forest
  FMa Black (Avicennia germinans) Mangrove
  FMl White (Laguncularia racemosa) Mangrove
  FMlb White Mangrove or Buttonwood Forest - This class signifies that it is uncertain whether vegetation is white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) or buttonwood forest (Conocarpus erectus), since signatures on the aerial photographs are very similar. Field checking is required to correctly identify the species.
  FMr Red (Rhizophora mangle) Mangrove
  FMx Mixed mangrove - Specific mixtures of mangrove species, when identified, will be distinguished as subgroups.
  FB Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) Forest - Conocarpus erectus with variable mixtures of subtropical hardwoods.
  FT Subtropical Hardwood Forest - Lysiloma latisiliquum, Quercus virginiana, Bursera simaruba, Mastichodendron foetidissimum, Swietenia mahagoni, among others.
  FO Oak Sabal Forest - Quercus laurifolia, Q. virginiana, Sabal palmetto.
  FP Paurotis Palm (Acoelorrhaphe wrightii) Forest
  FC Cabbage Palm (Sabal palmetto) Forest
  FS Swamp Forest
  FSh Mixed Hardwood Swamp Forest - Quercus virginiana, Q. laurifolia, Acer rubrum, Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus caroliniana.
  FSc Cypress Strands - Taxodium ascendens, T. distichum; cypress domes are treated as a subgroup. Cypress strands (especially in BICY) may contain an understory of species such as Annona glabra, Chrysobalanus icaco, and Fraxinus caroliniana.
  FSd Cypress Domes/Heads - Taxodium ascendens, T. distichum ; cypress growing in a depression such that trees in the center are tallest and give the characteristic dome shape. Delineated domes may contain a fringe of short cypress (less than 5 metres).
  FSt Cypress - Taxodium ascendens, T. distichum; cypress moderately to densely distributed with an open canopy. Cypress domes may be located within these communities.
  FSx Cypress Mixed Hardwoods - Taxodium ascendens and T. distichum with variable mixtures of subtropical and temperate hardwoods; predominantly in BICY.
  FSa Mixed Hardwoods, Cypress and Pine - Mixture of various subtropical hardwoods with Taxodium distichum with occassional Pinus elliottii var. densa.
  FSCpi Cypress-Pines - Taxodium distichum with Pinus elliottii and a mixed hardwood scrub understory.
  FSb Bayhead - Magnolia virginiana, Annona glabra, Chrysobalanus icaco, Persea borbonia, Ilex cassine, Metopium toxiferum, among others.


SCRUB - Low-density areas of trees and shrubs with heights under 5 meters.
  SM Mangrove Scrub - The vegetation matrix in which the scrub occurs should be noted, e.g., within Eleocharis marsh.
  SMr Red (Rhizophora mangle)
  SMa Black (Avicennia germinans)
  SMl White (Laguncularia racemosa)
  SMlb White Mangrove or Buttonwood Scrub - This class signifies that it is uncertain whether vegetation is scub white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) or buttonwood scrub (Conocarpus erectus), since signatures on the aerial photographs are very similar. Field checking is required to correctly identify the species.
  SMx Mixed scrub - Sparse and high-density subgroups/modifiers can be distingished.
  SC Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus) Scrub
  SP Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) Scrub
  SH Hardwood Scrub - Includes species such as Metopium toxiferum, Persea borbonia, Myrica cerifera, Ilex cassine, Magnolia virginiana, Myrsine floridana, Conocarpus erectus, Chyrsobalanus icaco and others. Often contains a moderate to heavy component of mixed grasses. Scrub oak (Quercus virginiana) is often included in areas of BICY.
  SS Bay-Hardwood Scrub - Mixed association of bayhead swamp species, buttonwood scrub and hardwood scrub species such as Myrica cerifera, Chyrsobalanus icaco, leather fern (Acrostichum danaeifolium), Conocarpus erectus and Cladium jamaicense. Minor species include Metopium toxiferum, Ilex cassine, Persea borbonia, Sabal palmetto and Cephalanthus occidentalis. Occurs in the transition zone between saline and fresh environments.


SAVANNA - Low-density (open canopy) trees in a matrix of graminoids.
  SVPI Pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa) Savanna
  SVx Slash pine mixed with palms - Pinus elliottii var. densa, Serenoa repens, Sabal palmetto; typical of BICY.
  SVPIh Slash pine with hardwoods - Pinus elliottii var. densa, Rhus copallina, Guettarda scabra, Bumelia salicifolia, Tetrazygia bicolor, Dodonea viscosa, among others; typical of EVER.
  SVPIc Slash pine with cypress - Pinus elliottii var. densa dominant with Taxodium distichum interspersed.
  SVC Cypress (Taxodium distichum and T. ascendens) Savanna
  SVCd Dwarf cypress - Cypress of stunted growth less than 5 metres in height.
  SVCpi Cypress with pine - Taxodium distichum and T.ascendens dominant with mixed Pinus elliottii var. densa.
  SVPM Palm (Sabal palmetto) Savanna


  PG Graminoid Prairie/Marsh - Contains grasses, sedges and rushes. The extent of periphyton cover is expressed as a modifier for all appropriate subclasses.
  PGj Black rush (Juncus roemerianus)
  PGc Sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) - The modifier 't' is used to distinguish tall sawgrass, e.g., PGct.
  PGm Muhly grass (Muhlenbergia filipes)
  PGs Cordgrass (Spartina spp.)
  PGe Spike rush (Eleocharis cellulosa)
  PGp Common reed (Phragmites spp.)
  PGa Maidencane (Panicum hemitomon)
  PGw Maidencane-Spike rush - Mix of shallow open water, Eleocharis spp. and Panicum hemitomon which can include sparse associations of low stature Cladium jamaicense, Typha spp., Sagittaria lancifolia, Pontedaria lanceolata, Nymphaea spp., etc. typical of SFWMD impounded conservation areas.
  PGx Mixed graminoids - Specific mixtures of graminoids, when identified, will be distinguished as subgroups.
  PE Non graminoid Emergent Marsh - Pontederia lanceolata, Sagittaria spp., Nymphaea odorata, Typha spp., with Ludwigia repens and Utricularia spp. as possible submergents.
  PEb Broadleaf Emergents
  PEf Floating/Floating Attached Emergents
  PEa Leather Fern
  PEo Other Mixed Non-Graminids - Other non-grass species such as Mikania, Polygonum spp., Cicuta mexicana.
  PC Cattail (Typha spp.) Marsh
  PH Halophytic Herbaceous Prairie
  PHg Graminoid - Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), smutgrass (Sporobolus spp.) and keys grass (Monanthocloe littoralis).
  PHs Succulent - Very salt tolerant species such as saltwort (Batis maritima), glasswort (Salicornia spp.) and sea purslane (Sesuvium spp.).
  PPI Prairie with Scattered Pines - Sparsely distributed Pinus elliottii var. densa in a matrix of graminoids, at the pinelands-glades ecotone.


  SBs Willow (Salix caroliniana)
  SBf Pop Ash (Fraxinus caroliniana)
  SBm Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera)
  SBb Groundsel bush (Baccharis spp.)
  SBc Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis)
  SBl Primrose (Ludwigia spp.)
  SBy Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco)
  SBa Pond Apple (Annona glabra)
  SBt Cypress (Taxodium ascendens, T. distichum)


EXOTICS - For sparse to low-density stands, modifiers are used to indicate (1)the vegetation matrix in which the exotic occurs, and (2) the original vegetation replaced by the exotic, when applicable.
  EM Cajeput (Melaleuca quinquenervia)
  EC Australian Pine (Casuarina spp.)
  EO Lather Leaf (Colubrina asiatica)
  ES Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius)
  EA Shoebutton Ardisia (Ardisia elliptica)
  EL Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)
  EJ Java Plum (Syzygium cumini)
  W Open Water
  BCH Beaches
  MUD Mud

  HI Structures and Cultivated Lawns - Human Influence (HI) includes structures (e.g., buildings, fishing and hunting camps), parking lots and cultivated lawns.
  HIp Pumping Stations
  HId Disturbed Fish Camp Site - Human influence site common in SFWMD that has been disturbed by former fishing/hunting camp. Although buildings are no longer present, an unusual mix of introduced and exotic species persist.
  RD Major Roads (greater than 30 m wide)
  C Major Canals (greater than 30 m wide)
  ORV ORV Trails
  SA Spoil Areas
  SAd Artificial Deer Islands